What’s New (and Exciting) in ECMA Script Version 6

JavaScript is a widely-used scripting language due to both its simplicity, integration with oft-used browser functionality and ubiquitous availability across all the major browser platforms. However, despite its high functionality and many impressive features, JavaScript has a number of shortcomings. Thankfully, resolutions to these issues have been provided in this upcoming ECMAScript 6 release. In a two part series, I would like to explore some of the various concepts coming to the next version of JavaScript.
 
The ECMA Script 6 changes are due to be released in early 2015. Many large players in the web development landscape have already taken steps to start testing out some of the new functionality and have created tooling to help other developers start getting acclimated. Additionally, according to Mozilla, the feature set has already been frozen, so at this point, it’s safe to start learning what’s new and identify useful functionality for your particular use cases.
 
 
Exciting New ECMASript 6 Features
 
Scoping and the ‘let’ Keyword
 
JavaScript currently handles scoping in a particularly strange way when compared to other popular programming languages. Consider the following blocks of both JavaScript and C#:
While they appear quite similar side-by-side, the JavaScript function will not throw any errors and will return a 5 because the b variable is defined within the scope of the function. C# has a stricter rule regarding scopes of variables in that within each block of code (or that code that can be logically enclosed within curly braces), variables defined there cannot be referenced by parent blocks, but can by child blocks. With this in mind, the C# function above will fail to compile as the b variable doesn’t exist on the same scope on which it is being returned. However, in the following comparison, the JavaScript will continue to work just as before as the variable can be accessed from anywhere in the function. Additionally, the C# will work in this case because the b variable is defined within the scope of the function, so can be accessed by logic within that function as well as within child blocks.

In the upcoming ECMAScript 6, there will be support for a keyword called ‘let’ that can be used in place of the present var declarative statement. This new keyword will limit the scope of the statement provided (e.g. let b = 2;) to only being availble within the scope in which it was defined. Suddenly, variables in JavaScript will behave more like those within these other popular languages, simplfying the process of identifying hard-to-spot, scope-related bugs and making the transition of new developers towards JavaScript all the more familiar.

 

Classes
 
Prior to ECMAScript 6, JavaScript has been able to create objects that contained and manipulated data, as well as exposed methods that could perform functionality within the context of that object through prototypes. However, in this specification, there’s a new ‘class’ keyword that simplifies this syntax and allows for features commonly seen in other object-oriented languages to exist within JavaScript such as constructors, get & set methods for properties and class inheritance. While other languages that are supersets of JavaScript have had this functionality already (such as TypeScript), it’s finally coming to ECMAScript 6 and even looks quite similar, to boot.
 
The following is an example of what an object making use of prototypes would look like today. Within this example, we create a Vehicle object that contains the startEngine() and stopEngine() methods. Then we create a new instance of this Vehicle object into a variable called v, and finally call the startEngine() and stopEngine() methods against it.
Of course, as this is how prototyping works in JavaScript today, this is a functional example. However, it’s not very straightforward from reading the code to understand what exactly the developer intends for the object to contain in terms of functionality, primarily because the functions within the prototype are defined in a different location in the code than when the Vehicle function was originally created. The following example provides the same functionality as the code above, but makes use of ECMAScript 6’s new ‘class’ keyword to provide more concise code that better indicates that the internal functions belong to the Vehicle class.
As you can see, this code is far cleaner as the developer can specify the class object and define each of the variables within the class’s curly braces. There’s no need for a semicolon to follow the definition of each function, nor do the functions need to be separated with a comma. At runtime, there’s no difference in how the Vehicle object or the methods available within it are called and it will produce exactly the same result. Behind the scenes, JavaScript will still be using prototypes – again, this simply cleans up the code for the developer’s benefit.
 
 
Constructors
 
However, classes provide more value than simply cleaning up the definition presentation. Let’s say we know that when a Vehicle is created, the engine always starts in the “Off” state and that starting the engine toggles this to “On” and stopping the engine restores it to “Off” once again. We can easily instantiate the class using a constructor to provide this functionality. Take a look at the following example:
 
In this example, we can see that when the Vehicle object is instantiated into the v variable, it sets a key inside the object with the name engineState that can be accessed through the this object.  When we call the getEngineState() method, it returns the value of that engineState key which is initialized to “Off”. When we start the engine with the appropriate method, the engineState key is still defined in the object as it saves the state of the properties, so it changes the value to “On” and reflects that in the output. Finally, when we turn the engine off again, the value correctly returns to “Off”.
 
 
Getter and Setter Functions for Properties
 
Now, say we have a class that we would like to have store some data for us. We could just use the standard JavaScript object notation format to create an object to store the data within, but if we ever need to store or retrieve that information, it’s up to the calling function to manipulate that into an expected format. Let’s take the following traditional JavaScript:
Now, we start off by creating an object named ‘person’ and we assign both a ‘firstName’ and ‘lastName’ value to it. Because this isn’t a constant object, we can easily re-assign the values to this instance and so we change the ‘firstName’ property to “whit” rather than leaving it blank. Finally, we create another object, ‘fullName’ that would return the entire name of the user; in this case we would see “whit Waldo”. Now, this wouldn’t be ideal – let’s say that the programmer intended to pass in a proper first name and simply made a mistake. Well, since we’re directly setting the value on the property, there’s no way for us to easily provide any sort of validation against this new value and when we create the full name, that just exposes even more opportunities for implementation mistakes. Rather, let’s look at what ECMAScript 6 offers us in terms of properties to deal with this:
 
 
In this example, we have another Person class with a get/set pair for both the firstName and lastName properties and then a mere get function for the fullName property. When the Person object is initialized, it requires that the firstName and lastName values be initialized, and in the constructor, it will then call the firstName and lastName setter properties, respectively, to set the backing values for each, adding the validation to check that the first letter of each name is capitalized. At the first console.log, it would then result in an output of “Average Joe” as that retrieves the combined values of the firstName and lastName property get functions. Then we reassign the firstName and lastName values using the setter functions and that will then yield “Whit Waldo”.
 
 
Class Inheritance
 
Let’s look back at our Vehicle example again to understand what we’re getting in terms of Inheritance with this new class syntax. While this has been available in previous versions of JavaScript (and available through external third-party libraries), having it built into the ECMAScript 6 standard means that we get a simple and reliable way to implement this in our logic.
 
Inheritance means that we’re able to create a class that’s capable of having all the properties and methods of another class without having to duplicate all the code. Rather, we can indicate that we’re extending the other class and then add additional functionality within this new class.
 
In this example, we have a Vehicle class that receives a tireCount value when a new instance is created. We then have a Truck and a Motorcycle class that both inherit the properties and methods of the Vehicle class. We could optionally add additional properties to each of these new classes that are specific to those sorts of objects but that don’t affect the base Vehicle class. When we create a new instance of the Truck, we need to pass in the number of tires that it’ll construct the Vehicle from. If we get the tireCount value from the Truck, we’ll see that we have 4 tires as that’s what was set in our base Vehicle class. When we do the same thing in the Motorcycle class, we’ll see the 2 tires that we initialized with as well.
How would we specify the number of tires in the constructor as well as pass in a value indicating what sort of transmission it uses? We would need to make use of the super keyword in this case per the following example:
 
 
In this case, we can see that after creating the new instance of the Truck, we’d correctly set the parameters that are specific to the Truck class as well as pass a tire count of ‘4’ back to the Vehicle base class to be set in its parameter, yielding each of the expected values in the console.log statements at the bottom. Additionally, we can create the Motorcycle object and use the super keyword to set the number of tires for this object to ‘2’, also seen in the output above.
 
Conclusion
 
After developing software for more than a decade across a number of platforms, I’m quite excited about the future of JavaScript .While this post hardly scratches the surface of what’s coming in ECMAScript 6, it’s a nice assortment of new functionalities. Many of them are already available in various third party frameworks, but having them all merged into a single standard to be implemented across all the upcoming versions of browsers will only improve developers’ lives and productivity in the future.
 
Since I didn’t cover all of what’s to come in ECMAScript 6, I’ll detail a number of other important aspects of this new version and why they’re particularly useful to JavaScript developers in my next post.  Stay tuned!
 
Questions? Comments?
 
Comment below or reach out to me at info@stratigent.com

 

By Whit Waldo
About the Author:

Whit Waldo is a Senior Analyst at Stratigent.

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on 13 March 2017
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on 15 March 2017
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Richardbefs
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